You'll need a large pan or casserole dish with a lid, a wooden spoon, a ladle or a measuring jug with a spout.
> Rice: Use round rice like Arborio, Carnaroli, or even California rice used for sushi (though bear in mind this rice is very starchy).
Quantity: 250g for 4 people.
> Fat: butter or olive oil, or both.
Quantity: 4 tablespoons for 4 people.
> The base, also known as soffritto (optional): Thinly sliced onions sweated in the butter or olive oil, or shallots, celery, leeks, carrots or whatever you fancy.
Quantity: 1-2 onions for 4 people.
> White wine: after you've sweated the onions, and once the rice is clear, add a glass of white wine for taste. Its acidity brings out the seasoning.
Quantity: about 200-300ml for 4 people.
> Stock: this should be completely absorbed by the rice, to soften it and give it flavour.
Quantity: depends on the other ingredients (whether your vegetables retain water or not...), and will vary between 750ml and 1.5 litres for 4 people.
> Cheese: parmesan, grana padano or pecorino are the most popular. You need a hard cheese with a typically dry texture.
Quantity: to taste, but use at least 60g for 4 people.
> Butter to finish: you can add a little butter once the risotto is ready. Melt it in to make your risotto creamier.
Quantity: 20-40g for 4 people.